Nepal After 600 BC with kingdoms and confederations of clans
Small kingdoms and clan confederations emerged in Nepal’s southern regions around 600 BC. From one of these, the Newar polity, came Gautama Buddha (traditionally dated 563–483 BC), a prince who later renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, established Buddhism, and became known as Gautama Buddha. In the centuries since, Nepal has become known as a land of spirituality and protection, having played a key role in the transmission of Buddhism to East Asia through Tibet and assisting in the preservation of Hindu and Buddhist manuscripts.
The Emperor had seized control of the southern regions by 250 BC. Emperor Ashoka visited Lumbini and built a pillar at Buddha’s birthplace, the inscriptions on which mark the beginning of Nepal’s properly documented history. Ashoka also paid a visit to the Kathmandu valley, where he built monuments celebrating Gautam Buddha’s visit. Most of Nepal was ruled by the Gupta Empire by the fourth century AD.
The Kiratas were forced eastward by the Lichchhavis in the Kathmandu valley, and the Lichchhavi dynasty came to power about 400 AD. The Lichchhavis erected monuments and left a trail of inscriptions; Nepal’s history from that time period is almost entirely based on them. The Tibetan Empire’s Songtsen Gampo sends Narendradeva back to Licchavi with an army in 641, and Nepal is subjugated. Later, the Tibetan empire exerted direct control over parts of Nepal and Licchavi.The Licchavi dynasty fell out of favor in the late eighth century, and the Thakuri took over. The country was ruled by Thakuri kings until the middle of the 11th century AD; little is known about this era, which is known as the “dark period.”